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Forestry in IRAN
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Forest & Forest Management in IRAN

 

What is forest?
Forest is a vegetation cover where trees are its main elements. They are divided into various types according to superficial and inner situation, and dominated by especial ecological conditions in respect of flora, fauna, climatic and edaphic factors.

The forest area of Iran
Having forests with an area of nearly 12.4 mil ha (7.4% of the country total area), it has various geographic conditions, producing different forests of various tree and shrub species and production capacity in different edapho- climatic conditions. Iran is divided into vegetational regions as follows.

1- Hyrcanian (Caspian) region:
The region that covers an area with 1,925,125 ha, extends throughout the south coast of Caspian Sea and northern part of the country. It has high production capacity due to humid temperate climate and suitable soil. Hyrcanian forests extend for 800 km in length. Main tree and shrub species are:

- Fagus Orientalis

- Buxus hyrcana

- Carpinus betulus - Parrotia Persica
- Quercus castaneifolia - Pterocarya fraxinifolia
- Alnus subcordata - Zelkova carpinifolia
- Alnus glutinosa - Diospyros
- Fraxinus excelsior - Carpinus orientalis
- Tilia begonefolia - Carpinus schuschaensis

 

2- Arasbaran region
The region with an area of 164,000 ha are situated in north - west of Iran and east Azarbaijan province has cold and semi - humid climate. The region has an important role in soil conservation, regulation of hydrology of surface and underground water, wildlife protection, biological diversity and supplying fuelwood requirements.

Main tree and shrub species are:

- Quercus - Vornus
- Carpinus betulus - Populus
- Fraxtinus excelsior - Corylus
- Ulmus - Taxus

- Viburnum

3- Irano - Touranian region
The region covers an area of about 3,452,775 ha with dry and mainly cold climate in winter. They are situated in Khorasan, Azarbaijan, Markazi and westem Provinces. Regardig to topographical conditions and diversity of species, the region is divided into plain and mountainous sub - regions.

In mountainous sub-region the juniperus polycar species are developed .The sub- region has dry and cold climate, temperate summer and the annual precipitation is about 4000 mm. The plain sub- region is dominated by desert climate and hot summer. Its main species are:

- Tamarix - Amygdalus
- Ulmus - Pistacia
- Geltis - Grataegus
- Salix

 

4- Zagrosian region:
The region extends throughout the zagros mountain in the west and south - west of Iran, west Azarbaijan, Kordistan, Kermanshah, Lorestan, Fars, Charmahal & Bakhtiyari, Yasouj and north of Khozistan.

Zagrosian region with an area of about 4,749,000 ha has semi - arid climate and temperate winter. It also has high importance in soil conservation, regulation of hydrology of surface and underground water and exploitation of by - products. The large rivers such as Karun,Karkhe and Zayandehroud originate from these forests. Main Zagrosian. region species are :

- Q.Persica, Q.Branti, Q.lnfectoria, Q.Lusitanica

- Pistacia
- Amygdalus - Celtis
- Crataegus - Fraxinus excelsior

 

5- Persian Gulf and Omanian region
The region with an area of 2,130,000 ha extends throughout southern parts of the country in Khosiztan, Boushehr, Hormozgan and Sistan- Baluchistan provinces. They are dominated by sub-equatrial climate.The main species in the region are:

- Acacia

- Prosopia
- Ziziphus - Avicennia
- Rhizophora

- populus euphatica

- Prosois stephaniana

 

Socio- economic and environmental role of forests in Iran
forests with products such as wood, fuelwood,fruit and various services have a great importance in the economic, social and environmental conditions.

Since Iran is located in arid and semi - arid zone, systematic exploitation and protection of its forests has an especial characteristic such as:

- Wood production
- Employment
- Soil and water conservation
- Recreational role of forest
- wildlife protection
- Forage and man
- Source of genetic reserves
- regulation of climate
- Reducing excess atmospheric carbon dioxide
- Flooding loss

Action plans and policies
Forest and Range Organization (FRO), an organization of Ministry of Jihad - e - Sazandegi is in the charge rehabilitation, systematic expeloitation and supervision of forests.

This responsibility is carried out through compiled action plans and policies in accordance with social, national, regional and institutional requirements.

Cooperative and private sectors cooperate in fulfillment of these policies. Important action plans are:
- Planning and implementation of forest management plans.
- Forest exploitation
- Rehabilitation of deteriorated forests
- Construction of forest roads
- Afforestation
- Forest protection
- Creation of forest parks
- Planning and implementation of "settlement of the traditional livestock owners outside the forest" and associating cottagers scattered family- units
-Establishing rehabilitation and exploitation cooperative societies of cottagers.